- Publisher: Apex Publishers
- Author: Ted Goldammer
- Publication Date: October 2008
- Printing History: Second Edition
- Cover Type: Paperback (four-color)
- Binding: RepKover™
- ISBN (13): 978-0-9675212-3-7
- Page Content: 496 pages
- Tables: 11
- Figures: 38
- Trim size: 6" x 9"
- Printed in U.S.A.
The Brewers' Handbook
The Complete Book To Brewing Beer
Features and Benefits
- Explains beer brewing in plain English
- Comprehensive coverage on all facets of the beer brewing process
- Provides a useful step-by-step guide to brewing beer
- Reviewed by leading experts in the beer brewing industry
- Provides an overview of the U.S. beer brewing industry (beer sales, beer segments, advertising, beer distribution, and government regulations)
- Brewery wastewater and solid waste management
- Beer brewing calculations
- No prior knowledge of brewing beer required
In the past two decades we have witnessed unprecedented changes in the
U.S. beer industry. The emergence of craft brewers and consumers’ newfound
appreciation for quality beer have resulted in what is often called the “Craft
Beer Renaissance.” Beer has taken on a new excitement and relevancy to
the average person. It is no longer thought of only in the context of large
commercial brewers with their mass-marketed beers. The marked increase in
the number of brew pubs and microbreweries and the burgeoning growth in
the number of home brewers indicate how deeply brewing beer has captured
the popular imagination.
The Brewer’s Handbook is intended to provide an introduction to brewing beer,
and to give a balanced, reasonably detailed account of every major aspect of
the brewing process. This book not only discusses brewing beer on a largescale
commercial basis, it has made every effort to address brewing practices
typically used by craft brewers. Thus its applicability extends to home brewers
and to individuals working in the brewing industry and related fields.
It is written in a language that can be easily understood by anyone not having
a background in brewing beer. However, the material is not so elementary
that it insults your intelligence, nor is it so difficult that its makes you lose
interest in the subject. Clarity is the touchstone that has been employed
throughout this book.
Browse Within This Book
Table of Contents
Ch. 1 U.S. Beer Market
The U.S. beer industry got its start in the 1840s and 1850s with the introduction of lager beer. Before that point, beers were heavily oriented toward ale, porter, and stout and were mostly brewed at home. At about the same time, several technological advances occurred that led to the development of the U.S. beer industry as we know it today.
Ch. 2 Barley Malts
Barley malt is to beer as grapes are to wine. It is ideally suited to brewing beer for many reasons. Malted barley has a high complement of enzymes for converting its starch supply into simple sugars and contains protein, which is needed for yeast nutrition. Other grains, such as wheat and rye can be malted and used to brew beer too, but they are not widely used.
Ch. 3 Hops for Beer Brewing
Hops, a minor ingredient in beer, are used for their bittering, flavoring, and aroma-enhancing powers. Hops also have pronounced bacteriostatic activity that inhibits the growth of Gram-positive bacteria in the finished beer and, when in high enough concentrations, aids in precipitation of proteins.
Ch. 4 Brewing Yeast
Yeast is one of the most important ingredients in brewing beer responsible for metabolic processes that produce ethanol, carbon dioxide, and a whole range of other metabolic byproducts that contribute to the flavor and finish of beer. There are literally hundreds of varieties and strains of yeast. In the past, there were two types of beer yeast: ale yeast (the "top-fermenting" type, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and lager yeast (the "bottom-fermenting" type, Saccharomyces pastorianus, formerly referred to as Saccharomyces carlsbergensis or Saccharomyces uvarum). Top fermenting yeasts produce beers that are more estery, fruity, and sometimes malty, whereas bottom-fermenting yeasts give beers a characteristic sulphurous aroma. Some other notable differences also include fermentation temperatures and flocculation characteristics. Top-fermenting yeasts are used for brewing ales, porters, stouts, Altbier, Kölsch while bottom-fermenting yeasts are used for brewing lagers such as Pilsners, Dortmunders, Märzen, and Bocks are fermented with bottom-fermenting yeasts.
Ch. 5 Brewing Water
High consumption of good-quality water is characteristic of beer brewing. More than 90% of beer is water and an efficient brewery will typically use between 4 and 6 liters of water to produce one liter of beer. Some breweries use much more water, especially small breweries. In addition to water used for beer production-mashing, boiling, sparging, filtration, and packaging-breweries also use water for heating and cooling as well as cleaning and sanitation of equipment and process areas.
Ch. 6 Beer Adjuncts
Adjuncts are nothing more than unmalted grains such as corn, rice, rye, oats, barley, and wheat. Adjuncts are used mainly because they provide extract at a lower cost (a cheaper form of carbohydrate) than is available from malted barley or to modify the flavor of the beer. Adjuncts are used to produce light-tasting, light-colored beers that have the alcoholic strength of most beers.
Ch. 7 Brewery Cleaning and Sanitation
Cleaning and sanitation are an integral part of a brewery and should be taken into consideration at every phase of the beer brewing process. Cleaning proceeds sanitation and prepares the way for sanitation treatment by removing organic/inorganic residues and microorganisms from the brewery equipment. Sanitation reduces the surface population of viable microorganisms after cleaning and prevents microbial growth on the brewery equipment.
Ch. 8 Malt Milling
The objective of milling is to reduce the malt to particles sizes, which will yield the most economic extract (wort) and will operate satisfactorily under brewhouse conditions and throughout the brewing process. The more extensive the malt is milled, the greater the extract production. However, the fine grind can lead to subsequent wort separation problems and a loss of extract in the spent grains during wort separation. As a result, the brewer needs to consider the equipment used in the brewhouse when determining the particle size when milling the malt. For example, mash tuns require comparatively coarse grists while lauter tuns can use finer grists and mash filters still finer grists.
Ch. 9 Mashing
Mashing involves mixing milled malt and solid adjuncts (if used) with water at a set temperature and volume to continue the biochemical changes initiated during the malting process. The malt and adjunct particles swell, starches gelatinize, soluble materials dissolve, and enzymes actively convert the starches to fermentable sugars. The end result is wort with a fixed gravity (OG), a set ratio of fermentable and non-fermentable sugars, and proteins (soluble and non soluble) that affect physical and biochemical changes during fermentation. The composition of the wort will vary according to the style of beer.
Ch. 10 Wort Separation
After mashing, when the starch has been broken down, the next step is to separate the liquid extract (the wort) from the residual undissolved solid materials found in the mash. Wort separation is important because the solids contain large amounts of protein, poorly modified starch, fatty material, silicates, and polyphenols (tannins).
Ch. 11 Wort Boiling
Following wort separation and extraction of the carbohydrates, proteins, and yeast nutrients from the mash, the clear wort must be conditioned by boiling in the kettle. This chapter covers the biochemical changes that occur during wort boiling, the types of kettle additives, hop and trub removal as well as the types of wort boiling systems used in brewing beer.
Ch. 12 Wort Cooling
After hot trub separation, the wort is preferably cooled to a temperature of 5 to 15°C for bottom-fermented beers and to 15 to 18°C for top-fermented beers (pitching temperature). The wort is then aerated in preparation for the addition of yeast and subsequent fermentation.
Ch. 13 Beer Fermentation
Fermentation is the process by which fermentable carbohydrates are converted by yeast into alcohol, carbon dioxide, and numerous other byproducts. It is these byproducts that have a considerable effect on the taste, aroma, and other properties that characterize the style of beer.
Ch. 14 Beer Conditioning
Following primary fermentation, the "green" or immature beer is far from finished because it contains suspended particles, lacks sufficient carbonation, lacks taste and aroma, and it is physically and microbiologically unstable. Conditioning reduces the levels of these undesirable compounds to produce a more finished product. The component processes of conditioning are maturation, clarification, and stabilization.
Ch. 15 Beer Filtration
Although conditioning-maturation, clarification, and stabilization-plays an important role in reducing yeast and haze loading materials, a final beer filtration is needed in order to achieve colloidal and microbiological stability. The beer must be rendered stable so that visible changes do not occur during its shelf life.
Ch. 16 Beer Carbonation
The next major process that takes place after filtration and prior to packaging is carbonation. Carbon dioxide not only contributes to perceived "fullness" or "body" and enhances foaming potential it also acts as a flavor enhancer and plays an important role in extending the shelf life of the product.
Ch. 17 Beer Bottling
Once the final quality of the beer has been achieved, it is ready for bottling. The bottling of beer is one of the most complex aspects of brewery operations and the most labor intensive of the entire production process. The layout of the bottling line will depend on a number of factors but typically consists of a series of processes as shown below if non-returnable bottles are used.
Ch. 18 Beer Kegging
Kegs, another option in packaging beer, are used in bars and catering establishments where beer is served "on draught." Kegging involves filling carbonated pasteurized beer into sterile aluminum or stainless steel kegs of various sizes. Aluminum kegs are generally more popular than stainless steel kegs because they are lighter and more resistant to minor damage. Kegging fits into the cost structure for craft brewers with limited startup capital for bottling lines and low product output.
Ch. 19 Beer Spoilage Organisms
Microbial contamination can originate from a variety of sources in the brewing process. Raw materials, air, brewing water, additives, and even pitching yeast can act as a constant supply of contaminants. Residues remaining in brewhouse tanks, pipelines, valves, heat exchangers, and packaging equipment harbor microorganisms too that represent a potential source of recontamination. Some of the effects of contamination range from comparatively minor changes in beer flavor and fermentation performance to gross flavor and aroma defects, turbidity problems, abnormal attenuation rates, and reduced yeast crops.
Ch. 20 Brewery Wastewater and Solid Waste Management
The beer brewing process generates large amounts of wastewater effluent and solid wastes that must be disposed of or treated in the least costly way to meet strict discharge regulations set by government entities.
Ch. 21 Beer Styles
Although beers are brewed from similar materials, beers throughout the world have distinctive styles. Their uniqueness comes from the mineral content of the water used, the types of ingredients employed, and the difference in brewing methods. In a strict sense, there are two classical beer styles, ales and lagers. However, in addition to ales and lagers, there are other classical beer styles such as wheat beers, porters, stouts, and lambics - to name a few - that merit differentiation.
Ch. 22 U.S. Government Beer Brewing Regulations
The brewing industry is subject to extensive government regulations at both the federal and state levels, as well as to regulation by a variety of local governments. Some of the regulations imposed at the federal and state level involve production, distribution, labeling, advertising, trade and pricing practices, credit, container characteristics, and alcoholic content. Federal, state and local governmental entities also levy various taxes, license fees and other similar charges and may require bonds to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations.