Types of Cereal Adjunctss
Most of the brewers’ adjuncts are based on a limited range of cereal grains. The non-malt brewing materials used in greatest quantity today are those derived from corn and rice, although barley, wheat, and sorghum grain are sometimes used.
Types of Milled Products
Flours are produced as by-products, during the manufacture of corn and rice. Flours must be cooked before being mixed in with the malt mash.
Grits consist of uncooked fragments of starchy endosperm derived from cereal grains. The starch of these adjunct products is in its native form, and is not attacked by the malt diastase enzymes during mashing.
There are two different manufacturing processes used to produce brewing flakes (Figure 6.1). In the traditional process, corn and rice grits or whole barley are steam-cooked to soften the endosperm, which is then rolled flat and dried.
Torrified cereals are produced by heating the grain, which makes the endosperm expand and pop, thus rendering the starch pre-gelatinized and easily milled. Torrified cereals can be added directly to the mash tun since the starch granules have been gelatinized. Most of the nitrogen is denatured in the kernel and is not solubilized, thus contributing little or no nitrogen to the mash.
Refined starches can be prepared from many cereal grains. In commercial practice, refined wheat starch, potato starch, and corn starch have been used in breweries; corn starches, in particular, are used in the preparation of glucose syrups. Wheat starch has been employed in breweries in Australia and Canada, where local conditions make it economical to use. However, the most important source of refined starch is corn.
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